d. The United States Army Aeronautical Services Agency (USAASA) requires periodic airfield and
navigational-aid (NAVAID) surveys and airport obstruction charts (AOCs) according to AR 95-2.
These surveys are extensive field survey operations that provide aeronautical and other information to
support a wide range of National Airspace System (NAS) activities. AOC surveys provide source
information on position, azimuth, elevation, runways and stop ways, NAVAIDs, FAR-77, obstructions,
aircraft-movement and apron areas, prominent airport buildings, selected roads and other traverse ways,
cultural and natural features of landmark value, and miscellaneous and special-request items.
e. The positioning and orientation information for NAVAIDs is required to certify the airfield
instrument-landing approaches. AOC surveys also establish geodetic control in the airport vicinity,
consisting of permanent survey monuments accurately connected to the National Spatial Reference
System (NSRS). This control and the NSRS connection ensure accurate relativity between surveyed
points at the airport and between these points and other surveyed points in the NAS, including the
f. The USAF requires positioning and orientation data for the initialization of inertial navigation
systems (INSs), INS test pedestals, NAVAIDs, and compass roses. The USAF relies on NIMA to
satisfy all of its positioning and orientation requirements. Army topographic surveyors are currently
assigned to assist NIMA in their mission to establish survey control for the USAF.
g. The US Army intelligence and signal elements require positioning information for remote
vehicles, remote sensing and imaging systems, antenna systems for geological location and direction,
inertial navigation initialization, situation awareness, and combat identification. This information
includes the following:
(1) Accuracy. The accuracy requirement for intelligence and signal elements is similar to the
accuracy expressed by FA and ADA. In many cases, intelligence and signal units can use the SCPs
established for the FA and ADA.
(2) Frequency and Timeliness. The number of SCPs and the timeliness are dependent on the
battlefield and the mission.
(3) Distribution. This survey information is distributed to each intelligence and signal battalion's
Operations and Training Officer (U.S. Army) (S3). Topographic surveyors are responsible for notifying
the S3 of the various datum within the area of operation (AO). Topographic surveyors should provide
the S3 with the necessary parameters and instructions on how to transform local coordinates to a
predefined common grid.
h. During operations involving deployments to joint-level commands, topographic surveyors may
be tasked to perform a number of different missions. Topographic surveyors are capable of providing
support to allied nations for any of the aforementioned defined areas.