for all military and civilian activities concerned with long-range position control and accurate directions
Horizontal control data may be obtained using the triangulation or traverse method. This chapter
discusses the field methods and required accuracies of high-order triangulation, precise instruments and
equipment, baseline measurements, triangulation field records and computations, and astronomic
PART A - SURVEY MISSIONS
2-1. Use. Army topographic surveyors determine horizontal and vertical distances between objects,
measure angles between lines, determine the direction of lines, and establish points of predetermined
angular and linear measurements. After completing field measurements, surveyors use these
measurements to compute a final report that is used for positioning by field artillery (FA), air defense
a. FA agencies are primary users of precise positioning and orientation information in a wartime
environment. Topographic-survey support, in accordance with FM 6-2, is provided to Multiple-Launch
Rocket System (MLRS) units, general support units, and other nondivisional assets in the corps area.
FA agencies require that topographic surveyors provide monumental survey control points (SCPs)
(horizontal and vertical) and azimuth references for conventional and inertial FA survey teams. FA
agencies sometimes require topographic surveyors to augment FA survey sections.
b. ADA agencies require positioning and orientation information for ADA systems. ADA and FA
agencies have an agreement that FA surveyors (MOS 82C) provide direct ADA survey support.
c. The NIMA geodetic-survey division maintains Army topographic surveyors as part of their
survey force structure. These surveyors are involved as team leaders, team members, and active
members in the data-reduction process. Additionally, the Army surveyors are used in areas or situations
where NIMA civilian personnel are not authorized (such as Saudi Arabia and Somalia). NIMA has the
responsibility to provide earth-orientation data for the Navigation Satellite Timing and Ranging
(NAVSTAR) Global-Positioning System (GPS). NIMA provides correlated World Geodetic System
1984 (WGS 84) airfield surveys and geographical and aeronautical database information needed to
support the aviation approach requirements. NIMA also determines transformation parameters between
geodetic systems. In many areas of the world, the transformation parameters are uncertain or unreliable.
During times of conflict, Army topographic surveyors may be required to collect data to enable NIMA
to better formulate these transformation parameters.