2-7. Status. At present, topographic surveyors have standardized PPS GPS receivers. These receivers
have improved the efficiency and productivity of topographic surveyors and provided the Defense
Mapping School (DMS) and the United States Army Engineer School (USAES) a background on the
training, operational, and research and development requirements necessary to successfully field the
GPS. The new GPS-S provides adequate absolute-positioning results and is designed to provide
protection in a jamming/spoofing environment. The requirement for a PPS GPS receiver that is capable
of performing DGPS when using military's authorized, encrypted pseudorandom noise (PRN) code has
been met. This receiver satisfies the positional accuracy requirements of the Army, the DOD, and joint-
PART E - SURVEY CLASSIFICATIONS
2-8. General. Topographic surveyors are capable of conducting and supporting a wide variety of
a. Artillery surveys are conducted to determine the relative positions of weapons systems to targets.
These surveys do not require the accuracy of geodetic-surveying techniques despite the relatively large
areas and long distances. The requirements, methods, and techniques used by military FA surveyors are
detailed in FM 6-2. ADA weapon systems require accuracies that are obtainable only from geodetic-
b. Basic-control surveys provide horizontal and vertical positions of points. Supplementary surveys
may originate from, and can be adjusted to, these surveys. The basic-control survey of the US provides
geographic positions and plane coordinates of triangulation/traverse stations and the elevations or
benchmarks (BMs). This information is used as the basis for the control of the US national topographic
survey; many state, city, and private surveys; and hydrographic surveys of coastal waters. The
techniques and methods used by military geodetic surveyors are discussed in this manual.
c. Satellite surveys determine high-accuracy, three-dimensional (3D) point positions from signals
received by NAVSTAR GPS satellites. GPS-derived positions may be used to provide primary
reference-control monument locations for engineering and construction projects from which detailed site
plans, topographic mapping, boundary demarcation, and construction-alignment work may be performed
using conventional surveying instruments and techniques.
d. Construction surveys provide data for planning and cost estimating. They are essential to locate
or lay out engineering works and are recorded on engineer maps. Plane surveys are normally used for
construction projects. The methods and techniques used by military construction surveyors are detailed
in FM 5-233.