b. Tints, Tones, and Shades. From the 12 hues, you can attain tints, tones, and shades:
Tints are lighter than hues and are formed by adding white to the colors on the color
Shades are darker than hues and are formed by adding black to the colors on the color
Tones are made by adding black and white to the colors on the color wheel.
c. Color Mixing.
(1) Oil-based paint. When you are mixing oil-based paint on the job, colors in oil are easier
than powders to mix into the paint vehicle. Colors in oil consist of dry pigments (powders) ground in a
vehicle of approximately 80 percent linseed oil and 20 percent volatile solvent. The solvent will make a
paste that will satisfactorily flow from containers. The major colors in oil are black, blue, brown, green,
orange, red, and yellow:
(a) Black. The blacks are bone black, high-colored carbon black, lampblack, and
synthetic black iron oxide. Carbon black and lampblack are the strongest in shading strength. Carbon
black and bone black are blacker in color. Lampblack, however, is the one you will most frequently use.
Black iron oxide is used as a pigment in black metal-protective paints and is also used for shading
purposes. You can thin pastes to brushing consistency by adding three parts linseed oil, one part spar
varnish, and one-half part drier to one part of the pigment paste.
(b) Blue. The blues are iron blue (Prussian blue), ultramarine blue, and copper
phthalocyanine blue. The permanency of iron blue is affected by alkalies, while ultramarine blue is
susceptible to acids. Copper phthalocyanine blue is more durable in the light-blue tints. When exposed
to the weather, these pigments have a fair permanency in tints or solid colors.
(c) Brown. The browns include metallic brown, burnt sienna, burnt umber, raw umber,
and synthetic brown iron oxide. The browns are among the most durable pigments in paints that are
exposed to the weather. Although adaptable as a trim color, metallic brown is more often used as a solid
color. It is used to a great extent in paint for barns, metal roofs, and freight cars. The other browns are
used more frequently for tinting paints and making stains. Brown iron oxide is also used as a pigment in
some paints and enamels.
(d) Green. The greens are chrome green and chromium-oxide green. Use chrome green,
composed of chrome yellow and iron blue, to make tints or solid-color paints. Chrome green is sensitive
to alkalies. Chromium-oxide green, the more permanent of the greens, is used with white for tinting
purposes. It does not have the tinting strength of chrome green but withstands high temperatures and is
not effected by alkalies or acids.
(e) Orange. The oranges consist of two shades of chrome orange that are used for tinting
and making solid-color paints. The pigments are basic lead chromate that is