Table 5-2. Carrier Phase Tracking
a. Static surveying is the most widely used differential technique for control and geodetic
surveying. It involves long observation times (1 to 2 hours, depending on the number of visible
satellites) to resolve the integer ambiguities between the satellite and the receiver. Accuracies of less
than a centimeter can be obtained using this method.
b. Rapid-static surveying measures baselines and determines positions in the centimeter level with a
short observation time (5 to 20 minutes). The observation time is dependent on the length of the
baseline and the number of visible satellites. Loss of the satellite lock, when moving from one station to
the next, can occur since each baseline is processed independently.
c. Kinematic surveying allows the user to rapidly and accurately measure baselines while moving
from one point to the next. The data are collected and postprocessed to obtain accurate positions to the
centimeter level. This technique permits only partial loss of lock during observation and requires a brief
period of static initialization. The OTF technology, both real time and postprocessed, could eventually
replace standard kinematic procedures for short baselines.