Painting with enamel indoors is dangerous, so paint in well-ventilated areas and away from lights or
flames. There are two types of heat-resistant black enamel for metal. One type has a bituminous base
that is otherwise unpigmented. The other type has a resin base and is pigmented; it is also gasoline- and
(11) Luminous paint. Luminous paint is used to make areas glow with a brilliance. In
dangerous areas throughout a building, it will act as a safety guide and show danger areas even after the
lights are out. It is similar to the dial and hands on a luminous watch.
(12) Wax. Wax is available in paste, emulsion, and liquid. It is an important part of the
finishing process, especially on furniture and floors. Wax is normally applied over varnish or shellac to
protect the coated surface. You often apply it directly over sealer to provide a waterproof coating.
(13) Linseed oil. Linseed oil, as previously explained in this lesson, may also be used as a
finish for wood surfaces. You ordinarily apply it by rubbing.
(14) Spirit varnish. Spirit varnish is a substitute for shellac varnish and may be used on
interior wood, metal, paper, and fabric surfaces. You may substitute it for oil varnishes where rapid
drying is more important than durability. This varnish is almost equivalent to shellac varnish, and you
can brush or spray it on. It cannot be satisfactorily mixed with oil-based paints, oil varnishes, lacquers,
turpentine, or mineral spirits.
(15) Shellac varnish. Shellac varnish is used primarily as a sealer and primer for interior
wood and masonry surfaces. Although it is not as durable in some ways as oil varnishes, some painters
use it for body and final coats. Occasionally, you will use it on exterior wood surfaces that are not
directly exposed to the weather.
Shellac varnish is either white (bleached) or orange and is available in light-, medium-, and heavy-
bodied consistencies. Shellac varnish comes in two grades. One grade is light in color and is practically
free of resin and suspended matter. The other grade is dark in color and contains some insoluble matter;
therefore, this shellac varnish is used where darker color and some resin are not objectionable. One
thinner for shellac varnish consists of 5 parts methyl alcohol to 100 parts ethyl alcohol. Another thinner
consists of 1 part aviation gasoline, 5 parts denatured ethyl acetate, and 100 parts denatured alcohol.
(16) Orange shellac. Orange shellac is used to make shellac varnish. Several grades of
orange shellac are on the open market. The highest grades are known as superfine and other names.
The second highest grade is resin-free and darker than the higher grades. The lowest commercial grade
contains some resin. This grade is darker in color than the two highest grades.
(17) Damar varnish. Damar varnish is a spirit made to use as a final coat on interior surfaces.
It is also used by manufacturers as a vehicle for some white and tinted enamels used for covering
interior metal surfaces, such as radiators, that are exposed to high temperatures. It is not satisfactory for
surfaces exposed to moisture and abrasion.