membranes, headache, dizziness, loss of appetite, nausea, and fatigue. Typical examples of toxic
materials are as follows:
Pigments. The most common toxic pigments are lead-containing compounds and
zinc chromate. Lead may be present in white or tinted paints as white lead; in
primers as lead chromate, red lead, or basic lead silica chromate; and in paint dryers.
The CPSC banned lead-based paints for residential use in 1978. Almost all paint
manufacturers have removed toxic pigments (such as lead) from their products, and
many good alternatives are available. Refer to the product specifications for the
analysis, and instruct your personnel to take proper precautions if the level of toxic
pigment is greater than 1 percent of the total weight of solids in the dry paint film.
Solvents. The maximum allowable concentrations (threshold-limit value [TLV) for
common paint solvents are listed in Appendix D. Among the most toxic solvents are
benzol (benzene), methyl (wood) alcohol, and chlorinated solvents (such as carbon
tetrachloride). However, these solvents are rarely used in common paint materials.
Binders. Some binders or vehicles are toxic; for example, epoxies, amines,
polyurethanes, and polyesters. Caution your personnel to avoid breathing the fumes
or spray or contacting binders with skin. In addition, personnel should always wash
their hands and face thoroughly before eating or smoking.
VOCs. The compounds are defined by the EPA as a group of chemicals that react in
the atmosphere with nitrogen oxides (combination compounds from automotive
emissions and burning of fuels) in the presence of heat and sunlight to form ozone
and air pollutants. Ozone in the lower atmosphere also is known as smog, a pollutant
detrimental to plants and humans. The EPA has been directed to regulate VOCs.
Control-technique guidelines were issued in the 1970s. Regulations are being
developed at the national level. State and local governments have passed regulations;
however, permissible VOC emissions vary widely, depending on the generic type of
protective coating and the location where it is applied. When you are checking for
acceptable coating products, look for the statement "VOCs as applied" rather than the
amount of VOCs in the can. New protective-coating products are being added to the
VOC regulations list, and new rules are being established. Check the VOC
regulations in the area where you intend to apply the protective coatings before
selecting a product.
(2) Dermatitic materials. Dermatitic materials affect the skin. The skin becomes irritated,
and if left untreated, infection can set in and progress to allergic sensitization and finally to
incapacitation and hospitalization. The following are typical examples of dermatitic materials: