rubble stone, metal, or earth may be substituted for
large-panel, rigid wall finishes that are often applied
wood in treeless regions. In the tropics, improvised
to framing characterized by widely spaced studs
siding and roofs can be made from bamboo and
supplemented by girts include exterior grade
grasses. Roofing felt sandwiched between two layers
plywood, tempered hardboard, gypsum board, and
of light wire mesh may serve for wall and roof
treated fiberboard. Characteristics are, briefly, as
materials where the climate is suitable.
b. Vertical sheathing. Vertical sheathing
(1) Plywood. As stated previously, the
consists of 1-inch nominal-thickness boards, usually
standard plywood panel is 4 by 8 feet, but plywood
6 inches or more in width, nailed with 8- or 10-penny
may occasionally be issued in 6-, 9-, 10-, and 12-foot
nails at top and bottom to the plate and sole plate and
in the middle to the girts. Vertical sheathing requires
(2) Hardboard. Hardboard is a very
less framing lumber than horizontally applied siding
dense, tough, grainless material made from highly
since the vertical sheathing helps support the roof
compressed wood fibers. It is furnished in "ordinary"
load on the top plate. Cracks between the boards
which is water-resistant, and "tempered" which is
may be covered with narrow wooden strips called
waterproof. It comes in 1/8" and 1/4" thickness and
"battens", or some type of light roll roofing, tar paper,
in the same widths and lengths as plywood.
or asphalt felt may be applied over the entire surface
and fastened at the seams with roofing nails or with
(3) Gypsum board. This is 1/2-inch
laths or light battens.
thick, 24 and 48 inches wide, and 8, 9, 10, and 12 feet
long. It consists of a gypsum core cast in a heavy
c. Siding. Siding may be classified into
water-resistant fiber envelope. The long sides are
three types: beveled siding, drop siding, and Shiplap.
normally tongued and grooved. It does not warp or
It is applied horizontally and nailed to studs with two
or more 8- or 10-penny nails. To make this siding
more weatherproof, building paper may be used on
(4) Fiberboard. Fiberboard is usually
the studs and nailed either to the siding, after it has
made from sugarcane refuse (bagasse) and treated
been applied, or between the sheathing and siding if
with asphalt. It comes 25/32-inch thick, 24 and 48
sheathing is also used. The methods of application
inches wide, and 8, 9, 10, and 12 feet long.
for the different types are similar. Drop and shiplap
f. Building paper. Building paper is of
siding have a rabbeted edge to give the proper lap.
several types, the most common being the
The lap must be measured each time in applying the
nonwaterproof resin-seized papers.
beveled siding, which requires much time. In TO
construction, siding, when used, will normally be
(1) Resin-seized papers are usually
applied alone without the back-up layer of wood or
red or buff but sometimes blue in color. They are
other sheathing customarily found in permanent
usually put up in rolls 36 inches wide containing 500
square feet and weighing from 18 to 50 pounds per
roll. Conventionally, this type of paper is applied
d. Use of corrugated iron. Corrugated
between the sheathing and the siding or other
sheet iron is used extensively as wall coverage since
external wall finish. In consequence, it is of limited
little framing, time, and labor are needed to install it.
usefulness in TO construction which is characterized,
It is applied vertically and nailed to girts, the nails
in the main, by single-layer wall construction.
being placed in the ridges. Sheathing may be used
behind the sheet iron with or without building paper.
(2) Tar- and asphalt-treated papers are
Since asphaltic felt or tar paper used behind sheet
frequently used in temporary TO construction as final
iron will cause the metal to rust, a resin-seized paper
protective wall finish. Tar papers are usually
should be used.
furnished in rolls containing 500 square feet; asphalt
felts in rolls of 216 or 432
e. Other large-panel wall finishes. Other