___________________________________________________ Principles of Transmission Lines
Figure 3-Sum 13. Formation of Standing Wave
When AC is applied to a short-circuited line, voltage is reflected out of phase,
while current is reflected in phase.
Figure 3-Sum 14. Instantaneous Values of Incident and Reflected Waves
A nonresonant line has no standing waves of current and voltage and is
either infinitely long or terminated in its characteristic impedance.
A resonant line has standing waves of current and voltage and is of finite
length and is not terminated in its characteristic impedance.