various members. (In some cases, the lengths are
given, while in others the bill of materials
accompanying the print specifies the required lengths
a. A section shows how a structure looks when
of the various members.) Detail A2 shows the type
cut vertically by a cutting plane. It is drawn to a
of footing used for the 60-foot span and detail B2 the
large scale showing details of a particular
type of footing for the 20-foot span (both cases to be
construction feature that cannot be given in the
120 feet long). You can see that the heavier footing
general drawing. The section provides information
construction includes diagonal bracing (detail A2,
on height, materials, fastening and support systems,
side elevation), whereas the footing shown in detail
and concealed features.
B2 uses scabs only. Note that the height of the
footing is marked "varies: which means that the
b. Of primary importance to construction
height depends upon the ground elevation.
supervisors and to the craftsmen who do the actual
building are the wall sections. The wall section
shows the construction of the wall as well as the way
2-10. FRAMING DRAWINGS
in which structural members and other features are
Framing drawings show the arrangement,
joined to it. Wall sections extend vertically from the
number, and dimensions of the structural members
foundation bed to the roof. A typical wall section
constituting the building framework. These drawings
with the parts identified by name and/or size is
include floor and roof framing plans and wall
illustrated in figure 2-15.
a. Floor Framing Plan. Framing plans for
floors are basically plan views of the girders and
a. Details are large scale drawings which show
joists. The size and spacing of the joists, the size and
features that do not appear (or appear on too small a
number of girders, and the bridging are noted on the
scale) on the plans, elevations, and sections. Details
plan. A typical floor framing plan is shown in figure
do not have a cutting-plane indication, but are simply
2-14. In reading the floor framing plan, you learn
noted by a code.
The construction at doors,
that the girders will be made up-of three 2 x 6's (or
windows, and eaves is usually shown in detail
three 2 x 8's for 20-foot spans). The joists will be
drawings. Figure 2-16 shows some typical door and
made up of 2 x 6's and are to be spaced at intervals of
window wood framing details and an eave detail for a
3 feet (2" x 6" at 3'-0" O.C.) with bridging. The joist
simple type of cornice. Other details which are
lengths are joined at the footings with 1 1/2/x 2-foot
customarily shown are of sills, girder and joist
splices. Note that there are two types of footings
connections, and stairways.
indicated. The construction of the footing would be
as depicted in figure 2-13.
b. The sill, or soleplate, is the horizontal
member on which the studs (vertical members) rest.
b. Roof Framing Plans. Framing plans for
Do not confuse this member with the sills shown in
roofs are similar to floor framing plans and impart the
door and window details. Typical variations of
same type of information. The size and arrangement
details surrounding sills are illustrated in figure 2-17.
structural members in the roof are noted on the plan.
c. Joists are connected to sills and girders by
several methods. In modern construction, the method
that requires the least time and labor and yet gives the
c. Wall Framing Details.
details (also called wall framing plans) present
maximum efficiency is used. The same rule is
information on the studs, plates, corner posts,
followed in the theater of operations. Figure 2-18
bracing, sills, and girts. Door and window framing is
shows three constructions for girders and methods of
shown in wall framing details. The types of doors
supporting the inside ends of floor joists; outside
and windows are identified by notes.
ends of floor joists are supported as shown in figure