can rejoin any broken tape (Figure 5-23). The tape repair kit usually contains a pair of small snips, the
tape sections of proper size and graduations, a hand punch or bench punch with block, an assortment of
small rivets, a pair of tweezers, a small hammer, and a small file. Before reusing a repaired tape, always
check its accuracy by comparing it with another tape that you know is correct.
Figure 5-23. Tape repair kit
5-5. Field Supplies. Field supplies consist of a variety of materials used to mark the locations of points
in the field. These materials are discussed in the following paragraphs.
a. Surveying Markers. The material used as a survey-point marker depends on where the point
is located and whether the marker is to be of a temporary, semipermanent, or permanent character.
(1) Temporary Markers. For purely temporary marking, it is often unnecessary to expend
any marking materials. For example, a point in ordinary soil is often temporarily marked by a hole
made with the point of a plumb bob, a taping pin, or some other pointed device. In rough taping of
distances, even the mere imprint of a heel in the ground may suffice. A point on a concrete surface may
be temporarily marked by an X drawn with keel (lumber crayon), a pencil, or some similar marking
device. A large nail serves well as a temporary point in relatively stable ground or compacted materials.
(2) Semipermanent Markers.
Wooden hubs and stakes are extensively used as
semipermanent markers of points in the field. The principal distinction between the two markers is that
the top of the hub is usually driven flush, or almost flush, with the ground; whereas with the stake, it is
left above the ground several inches.
(a) Wooden hubs are used to mark the station point for an instrument setup. A survey's
tack, made of galvanized iron or stainless steel with a depression in the center of the head, is driven into
the top of the hub to locate the exact point where the instrument is to be plumbed. Wooden hubs are
usually made of a 2- by 2-inch stock and are from 4 to 12 inches long. The average length is about 8
inches; however, shorter lengths can be used in hard ground and longer lengths can be used in soft
(b) Wooden stakes that are improvised in the field may be cylindrical or any other shape
that is available. However, manufactured stakes are rectangular in cross section because the faces of the