(a) On a slip of paper, mark off
(9) Instructions concerning
the length of the dimension desired.
construction and installation work.
(b) Place the slip on the graphic
c. Sections. Sectional views show how a
scale, reading off the dimension represented by the
structure looks when cut vertically by a cutting plane.
They give details which cannot be shown on
elevation or plan views. Figure 1-4 illustrates the
development of a sectional view of a typical theater-
of-operations type building.
An architectural drawing consists of several
views, each showing the building or structure in two
d. Details. A complete set of prints
dimensions. It usually includes elevations of the
includes large-scale drawings of some parts of the
front, side, and rear; plans of floor and roof; and
building which cannot be shown clearly on the
sectional views of construction details. In addition,
smaller scale drawings of overall plans and
elevations. Details may be shown in elevation, plan,
isometric) drawings of special construction features
are sometimes used to supplement two-dimensional
SYMBOLS AND SPECIFICATIONS
a. Elevation. Elevation drawings show
a. Symbols. Architectural drawings are
the front, sides, and rear of buildings in true
simplified by the use of conventional symbols to
proportion. Figure 1-4 illustrates the development of
represent certain parts of the building, various types
elevations of front and side from a simple block to a
of construction materials, and the utilities that are to
small theater-of-operations type building. The sides
Figure 1-5 shows the symbols
may be specified as right or left with respect to the
recommended by the United States of America
front view, or according to the point of the compass
Standards Institute for the more common types of
from which the view is taken, for example, north
building materials. Figure 14 shows the symbols
elevation. Elevations show floor level, grade lines,
used to represent the doors and windows most
window and door heights, and the various materials
commonly found in theater-of-operations type
to be used.
b. Plans. Drawings showing the interior
b. Specifications. Even with the most
arrangements of a building are called plans. These
elementary of structures it is seldom possible to
drawings are made looking down on the building
include in the actual drawings of floor plans,
from a point directly above. Horizontal surfaces,
elevations, sections, and details, all the information
such as floors, appear without distortion. Figure 1-4
required for construction. Notations on drawings or
also shows the plan development of a typical TO
prints that explain materials or construction methods
building. All vertical surfaces, such as walls, appear
that cannot be indicated by symbols are called
as lines. Plans show the following information:
specifications. For example, "40-pound prepared
roofing" indicates the material to be used to cover the
(1) Outside shape of building.
roof; "notch post for handrail" indicates a
construction detail. Those notations must always to
(2) Arrangement of rooms.
read before beginning construction.
(3) Size and shape of rooms.
(4) Type of materials.
Figure 1-7 illustrates and identifies the principal
(5) Thickness of walls and partitions.
elements of substructures as used in theater-of-
operations (TO) frame structures.
(6) Type, size, and location of doors
(7) Details of framework and structure.
Joints are connections between two pieces of
lumber or timber that come together at an angle.
(8) Type, size, and location of
Common types include:
mechanical equipment such as heating plant,
radiators, plumbing, and electrical wiring.