1-23. The Risk Management Process. FM 101-5 describes risk management as the process of
detecting, assessing, and controlling risks arising from operational factors and balancing risks with the
mission benefits. Risk management is an integral part of the MDMP. FMs 100-14 and 3-100. 4 outline
the risk management process and provides the framework for making risk management a routine part of
planning, preparing, and executing an operational mission and every day tasks. Assessing
environmental-related risks is part of the total risk management process. Knowledge of environmental
factors is key to planning and decision making. With this knowledge, leaders quantify risks, detect
problem areas, reduce the risk of injury or death, reduce property damage, and ensure compliance with
the environmental laws and regulations. Platoon leaders should conduct risk assessments before
conducting any training, operations, or logistical activities.
1-24. Tactical Risk and Accident Risk. When assessing the risk of hazards in operations, the
commander and his staff must look at tactical and accident risk.
a. Tactical risk is concerned with hazards that exist because of the presence of either the enemy or an
adversary, thus involving the considerations of force protection. For example, during the Gulf War, the
enemy's demolition of oil fields created a significant health and environmental hazard to the
surrounding countryside and to those units maneuvering through the area.
b. Accident risk includes all operational risk considerations other than tactical risk. It includes risk to
friendly forces and risk to civilians by an operation, as well as the impact of operations on the
environment. Examples of environmental-related accident risk are improper disposal of HW, personnel
that are not properly trained to clean up a spill, and units maneuvering in ecologically sensitive terrain.
c. Tactical risk and accident risk may be diametrically opposed. The commander may choose to
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accept a high level of environmental-related accident risk to reduce the overall tactical risk.
1-25. Legal and Regulatory Responsibilities. Risk management does not convey authority to
deliberately disobey local, state, national, or HN laws and regulations. It does not justify ignoring the
regulatory restrictions and the applicable standards or bypassing the risk controls required by the law. As
described in AR 200-2, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires federal agencies,
including the military, to consider the environmental consequences of their proposed actions before
making decisions. The level of environmental considerations exercised depends on the scope of the
action, the extent of public interest, and the potential for environmental impacts. NEPA concerns are
generally installation or operational-level unit considerations. Leaders should consult installation and
operational staff on NEPA-related issues.
1-26. Environmental Benefits of Risk Management. Risk management assists the commanders in
complying with the environmental regulatory and legal requirements and operating within the higher
commander's intent. Risk management provides the leaders with a tool to do the following:
Identify applicable environmental standards, laws, and rules of engagement (ROE) that affect
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the mission.
Identify alternate COAs or alternate standards that meet the intent of the law and the
operational requirements.
Identify feasible and effective control measures where specific standards do not exist.


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