term planning. Units require facilities, training areas, and support systems that must be managed to
secure long-term availability. Environmental-support planning is, by nature, long term.
1-12. Operational Planning. Operational planning usually begins with a formal staff estimate as a part
of the MDMP. However, operational planning may entail a separate study on the characteristics of the
area of operations (AO) or an informal review of the environmental considerations and the issues
contained in the higher HQ operation plan (OPLAN) or operation order (OPORD).
1-13. Staff Planning. Staffs conduct environmental planning within the context of the mission. Their
efforts produce information that helps units understand environmental requirements of the mission. Most
often, staffs develop this information in the form of staff estimates, environmental-protection levels, and
an environmental-baseline survey (EBS).
1-14. Staff Estimates. Individual staff officers incorporate environmental considerations into their staff
estimates. The staff estimate may include the following:
Significant environmental weaknesses and sensitivities in the AO.
Potential enemy environmental targets.
Critical or unique resources to the area.
Environmental-conditions related to the situation.
Applicable laws and regulations.
Staffs identify environmental weaknesses and critical terrains that may be a factor to be avoided,
actively protected, or temporarily exploited to accomplish the mission. They identify potential enemy
environmental targets and plan contingency responses. The following environmental factors normally
require consideration during staff estimates:
Topography, soils, and vegetation (including crops).
Air quality.
Wildlife and livestock.
Archaeological and historical sites.
Safety and public health.
Land and facility use, occupation, and return.
Water quality (including surface water, groundwater, storm water, and wetlands).
Hazardous material (HM) and HW disposal and potential cleanup requirements.
Socioeconomic and political condition sensitivities and desired end states pertaining to, or
functions of, environmental-conditions.


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