Water supply and source.
(7) As soon as time and conditions permit, a more formal or updated EBS and site
assessment may be completed. The periodic use of environmental-conditions reports (ECRs) will assist
the unit in both maintaining environmental standards and documenting their stay at a site/area.
c. Unit Planning. Staffs integrate environmental protection into planning for larger units. Unit
leaders integrate environmental protection into unit planning for battalion- and company-level units. Unit
planning includes SOPs, OPORDs, risk management plans, and training plans.
(1) Standing Operating Procedures. Unit leaders develop SOPs reflecting environmental
protection considerations for routine tasks and activities. SOPs provide information to soldiers on how to
accomplish routine tasks in an environmentally sound manner. SOPs incorporate local requirements, in
which unit leaders ensure that the SOPs coordinate with the higher HQ staff.
(2) Orders/Plans. Unit leaders address environmental protection in their plans and orders
(WOs, OPORDs, OPLANs, CONPLANs, and fragmentary orders [FRAGOs]). The higher HQ staff
develops an environmental appendix/annex to its OPORD/OPLAN/CONPLAN. Subordinate unit leaders
draw environmental information from the environmental appendix to the OPORD/OPLAN/CONPLAN.
4-3. The Risk Management Process. FM 5-0 (101-5) describes risk management as the process of
detecting, assessing, and controlling risk arising from operational factors and balancing risk with mission
benefits. Risk management is an integral part of the MDMP. FM 100-14 (3-100.14) outlines the risk
management process and provides the framework for making risk management a routine part of planning,
preparing, and executing operational mission and everyday tasks. Assessing environmental-related risks
is part of the total risk management process. Knowledge of environmental factors is the key to planning
and decision making. With this knowledge, leaders quantify risks, detect problem areas, reduce the risk
of injury or death, reduce property damage, and ensure compliance with environmental laws and
regulations. Unit leaders should conduct risk assessments before conducting any training, operations, or
a. Tactical Risk and Accident Risk. When assessing the risk of hazards in operations, the
commander and staff must look at two types of risk.
(1) Tactical risk is concerned with hazards that exist because of the presence of either the
enemy or an adversary, thus involving the considerations of force protection. For example, during the
Gulf War, the enemy's demolition of oil fields created a significant health and environmental hazard to
the surrounding countryside and to those units maneuvering through the area.
(2) Accident risk includes all operational risk considerations other than tactical risk. It
includes risk to friendly forces and risk posed to civilians by an operation, as well as the impact of
operations on the environment. For example, improper disposal of HW, personnel that are not properly
trained to clean up a spill, and units maneuvering in ecologically sensitive terrain.
(3) Tactical risk and accident risk may be diametrically opposed. The commander may choose
to accept a high level of environmental-related accident risk to reduce the overall tactical risk.