This lesson describes what is included in the planning phase of training and operations. It also describes
how environmental considerations are a part of the decision-making process.
TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
Describe the military decision-making and risk assessment processes required in
You will be given all material contained in this lesson. You will work at your
own pace and in your own selected environment with no supervision.
You will correctly answer questions on the practice exercise at the end of the
The material contained in this lesson was derived from FM 4-04.4, FM 5-0 (101-
5), FM 1-02, FM 100-14 and TVT 5-56.
Each day leaders make decisions affecting the environment. These decisions affect natural and cultural
resources entrusted to the Army and have serious environmental and legal consequences for decision
makers. The military's inherent responsibility to the nation is to protect and preserve its environmental
resources. Risk management is an effective process used to assist in preserving these resources. Unit
leaders identify actions that may negatively impact the environment and take appropriate steps to prevent
or mitigate damage. This lesson illustrates how to use the risk management process to assess and manage
environmental-related risk during planning, training, and operations.
4-1. The Military Decision-Making Process. The military decision-making process (MDMP) is a
single, established, proven analytical process. The MDMP is a tool that assists the commander and staff
in developing estimates and a plan. The commander and staff examine a battlefield situation and reach
logical decisions. The process helps them apply thoroughness, clarity, sound judgment, logic, and,
professional knowledge to reach a decision. The MDMP model contains seven steps, each of which
incorporates environmental considerations (Figure 4-1).
Step 1. Receipt of Mission.
Step 2. Mission Analysis.
Step 3. Course of Action
Step 4. COA Analysis.