(2) Open Traverse. An open traverse ends at a station whose relative position is not previously

known. Unlike a closed traverse, an open traverse provides no check against mistakes and large errors.

An open traverse usually starts at a station determined by a closed traverse or by triangulation but may

start at an assumed position. An open traverse is often used for a preliminary survey for a road or

railroad. When the centerline location traverse is run, ties to the preliminary traverse form a series of

closed-loop traverses. A random traverse is a special adaptation of an open traverse. It is run between

two stations to determine their relative positions. Running the computed line between the two points

usually closes the traverse. One example of a random traverse is the measuring of the distance between

points on opposite sides of a lake. This is done by running a traverse line around the shore. In this

example, the angles of the loop may be closed if a sight is determined across the lake from the final to

the initial point. This is not considered a closed-loop traverse, since the distance between the last and

the first point is not measured directly. If an electronic distance-measuring device is able to measure the

distance, the open traverse becomes a closed traverse.

b. Triangulation. Triangulation is the measurement of angles of triangles. It is the most common

type of geodetic survey. If you accurately measure the distance along

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