PART E - SURVEYING PARTIES
1-10. Surveying-Party Types. The size of a field surveying party depends on the surveying
requirements, the equipment available, the surveying method, and the number of personnel needed for
performing the different functions. The following are the surveying parties that will be discussed in this
lesson: a leveling party, a transit party, and a stadia party. The other surveying-party organizations
generally follow the same pattern, therefore, they will not be discussed.
a. Leveling Party. The smallest leveling party consists of two persons. For differential
leveling, one person acts as an instrument man (level man) and the other holds the rod (rod man).
Trigonometric leveling requires instrument men to read vertical angles as well. In small parties of this
type, the instrument men must record their own notes. Reciprocal leveling can be done by two people
but requires separate vehicles for transporting the party and the equipment around the obstruction.
(1) Additional Persons. To improve the efficiency of the different leveling operations,
additional personnel are required. A second rod man to alternate on the backsights and foresights will
speed up leveling. A recorder will allow the instrument man to take readings as soon as the rod men are
in position. For surveys with numerous side shots, extra rod men will eliminate waiting periods while
one or two persons move from point to point. In surveys requiring a shaded instrument, an umbrella
man can allow the recorder to concentrate on note keeping.
(2) Combined Party. Leveling operations may be run along with a traverse or as part of a
taping survey. In these instances, the leveling party may be organized as part of a combined party with
personnel assuming duties as required by the workload and as assigned by the party chief.
b. Transit Party. A transit party consists of at least three people: an instrument man, a head
chainman, and a party chief. The party chief is usually the note keeper and may double as a rear
chainman, or there may be an additional rear chainman. The instrument man operates the transit, the
head chainman measures the horizontal distances, and the party chief directs the survey and keeps the
c. Stadia Party. A stadia party should consist of three people: an instrument man, a note
keeper, and a rod man. However, two rod men should be used if there are long distances between
observed points so that one can proceed to a new point while the other is holding the rod on a point
being observed. The note keeper records the data the instrument man calls out and makes the required
PART F - SURVEYS
1-11. Surveying Types. Generally, surveys are classified by names descriptive of their functions,
such as property surveys, mine surveys, hydrographic surveys, and so on. Although surveys are
classified by many different names, the methods and instruments used are basically the same. Some of
the types of surveys that you might perform as a construction surveyor are discussed below.