INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYING
In this lesson, you will learn the fundamentals of surveying.
TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
You will learn the fundamentals of surveying.
You will be given the material contained in this lesson.
You will correctly answer the practice exercise questions at the end of this lesson.
REFERENCES: The material contained in this lesson was derived from TM 5-232, FM 5-233,
NAVEDTRA 10696, and CDC 3E551A.
Surveying is a science that deals with determining the relative position of points on or near the earth's
surface. These points may be needed for construction to locate or lay out roads, airfields, and structures
of all kinds or for cultural, hydrographic, or terrain features for mapping. In the military, these points
may be used as target reference points for artillery. The horizontal position of these points is determined
from the distances and directions measured in the field. The vertical position is computed from the
differences in elevations, which are measured directly or indirectly from an established point of
reference or datum.
Surveying is a basic subject in the training of any civil engineer regardless of any ultimate
specialization. Its application requires skill as well as knowledge of mathematics (which will be covered
later in this correspondence course), physics, drafting and, to some extent, astronomy. This chapter will
give you an overview of surveying in general, with emphasis on those areas affecting the duties of a
Surveying involves fieldwork and office work. Fieldwork consists of taking measurements, collecting
engineering data, and testing material. Office work consists of analyzing and computing field data and
drawing the necessary sketches.