Tie the ladder to something solid with a rope when there is any danger of the ladder
slipping. Ladders that are equipped with safety shoes are still subject to slipping.
Do not place a ladder on a movable object.
Do not climb a ladder while using both of your hands to hold material; at least one hand
must be used while you are ascending or descending a ladder.
Do not place the top or the bottom of a ladder against unstable material.
PART B: SCAFFOLDS
4-2. Scaffolds. Scaffolds are temporary elevated platforms that are used to support workers and
tools. They may range from individual planking that is placed across structural members of a building
to steel mobile work platforms. Well-constructed or erected scaffolds are safer for you to work from
than a ladder. The types of scaffolds most commonly used by painters include horse, independent metal,
swing stage, and boatswain's chair.
a. Scaffold Horse. Use a scaffold horse (Figure 4-13) to construct a simple scaffold. Scaffold
horses are used in pairs; however, a stairway, porch, or any other stationary object may be used to hold
one end of a work platform while a scaffold horse holds the other. Before each use, check the nailing of
the horse's legs and braces.
Figure 4-13. Scaffold horse
b. Independent Scaffold (Figure 4-14, page 4-10). A double-pole, built-up scaffold (metal or
wood) is completely independent of the main structure. Several types of patented independent scaffold
are available for simple and rapid erection. Brace the scaffold uprights (scaffold legs) with diagonal
members, and cover the working level with a planking platform. All bracing must form triangles, and
the base of each column requires adequate footing plates (Figure 4-15, page 4-11) for the ground-
bearing area. If the ground is fairly even, secure the footing plate by bolting it to a 2-by-8 board that is
placed on the ground.