a. Defective materials or structural components.
of high humidity (moisture content) provide excellent
b. Incorrect installation or application.
conditions for the growth of decay-causing fungi.
c. Failure of related, connected, or adjacent
Wooden members which are near, touching or set in damp
ground are especially subjected to fungi growth. To
d. Faulty design.
prevent or minimize this fungi growth is our job if we
e. Unusual or extreme climatic conditions,
expect maximum service from our wooden structures.
7-15. Exposed wooden members should be panted or
exceeding the design specifications for which the
soaked with creosote Whenever possible, wooden
material or structural part was de.
members should be constructed on some type of masonry
foundation and above ground level. This holds true for
f. Use exceeding the limitations of original de sign.
treated as well as untreated timber.
g. Use other than that for which the structure was
7-16. Rust and its prevention.
Iron and steel
components will rust after prolonged periods of exposure
7-22. If failures occur during the normal life
to rainfall, snow, or moisture-laden air.
expectancy of the structure, they should be carefully
This is particularly true If the metals are not painted or
investigated and the defects corrected before any
otherwise treated against this type of reaction. Paint
superficial repair is done. Unless the causes of these
metals which are not inherently resistant or otherwise
failures are identifiable or corrective procedures are
protected from rust.
standard, the installations engineer should be consulted r
7-17. Insects and their elimination. Where wooden
adequate corrective measures.
structures are concerned, termites present a major
inspection and repair problem. If these insects establish
8. Waterfront Structures
themselves in or beneath a structure, they construct
earthlike shelter tubes which lead to the wood portion of
8-1. The fundamental principles and practices
the structure. These tubes may enter the wood from
presented here are meant to assist you in the preservation
below or through cracks between brick or hollow tile.
of waterfront structures in the most economical manner.
A well-established termite colony can cause major
These fundamentals are intended to insure that facilities
structural damage in a very short while. For this reason,
are maintained in such a condition that they can be used
we must provide an adequate insect control program.
throughout their planned life. These structures would be
7-18. Some of the basic methods used to discourage
maintained by an Army carpenter, if that carpenter was
termite infiltration are soil treatment, wood treatment,
assigned to one of the waterfront installations maintained
termite shields, not allowing wood to come in contact
by the Army.
8-2 If a carpenter is expected to maintain waterfront
wood piles. Special detail in foundation construction will
structures, he must know what these structures are, the
also discourage termite activity. However, if termite
terms used in working with them, what damages them, the
colonies do accumulate, consult your entomologist.
preventive maintenance methods, and the inspection and
7-19. Corrective Repairs.
repair procedures used in conjunction with them. Let's
problems can and do create serious situations; however, if
discuss these methods and procedures.
they are adequately approached and treated, the
8-3. Generally speaking, waterfront structures include
seriousness will be reduced. Proper inspection and
wharves, quays, pier bulkheads, retaining walls,
maintenance methods will prolong the useful life of all
breakwaters, jetties, groins, and other supporting features.
However, wharves, quays, piers bulkheads, and retaining
7-20. To determine the best repair method depends
walls are the only structure that we will be working with;
upon the use of the structure, extent of damage, life
so we will center our discussions around them. This
expectancy, and its possible future use. These are very
section covers the construction features, special tools
important factors, but why repair are needed is also
needed, general maintenance problems, corrective repairs,
important. The extent of damage will depend upon why
preventive maintenance measures, and safety measures
or how the structure failed. To determine this we must
for waterfront structures.
know the causes for failure.
8-4. Wharves and quays are structures constructed
7-21. Premature failure of materials and various
parallel or approximately parallel to the shoreline which
components may be caused by one of the following
provide berthing or docking for seagoing vessels. These
structures are virtually