round bars are placed around the vertical bars.

the reinforced concrete pier in figure 2-21. Note that

the pier consists of a post that is 12 inches square on

a footing measuring 2 feet, 8 inches square and 1 foot

(minimum) in depth. The post reinforcement consists

of four vertical, 3/4-inch diameter round bars on 9-

inch centers, with 1/4-inch diameter round bar hoops

at specified intervals (designated on the print or in the

reinforcing schedule). The footing reinforcement

consists of eight 3/8-inch diameter round bars

arranged as a mat.

foundation wall (fig 2-21) shows vertical, horizontal,

and longitudinal bars. Note that the wall thickness is

designated by the letter "A" minimum.

An

explanatory note on figure 2-21 advises that the

thickness of the wall and the size of the footing

depends upon the soil bearing capacity and weight

load.

This note also reveals that minimum

temperature and building codes determine the depth

below ground of a reinforced foundation wall. The

vertical bars are 1/2-inch diameter round bars spaced

at 9 inches center-to-center and the longitudinal bars

are 1/2-inch diameter round bars spaced at 18 inches

center-to-center. The horizontal bars in the footing

are not specified in figure 2-21, but will be found

bars in portions of a continuous rectangular beam, a

elsewhere in associated plans.

continuous T-beam, and a span of one-way

reinforced concrete slab floor. For example, you can

see that the continuous rectangular beam will be

retaining wall shown in figure 2-21, you will find the

reinforced with 4 1/2-inch diameter truss bars, 2 3/4-

thickness and height of the wall and the height and

inch diameter straight rods, and 1/2-inch diameter

width of the footing. You will also learn that the

stirrups. You should also note that the cross-section

backfill of the wall is porous, a 4-inch tile drain is

size of the beam is 6 x 12 inches. Beam length is

provided, and the longitudinal reinforcement bars are

given in the associated schedule.

to be 3/4 inch round. Note that the wall thickness

increases from a thickness of 7 inches at the top to 1

foot at the bottom. Data not given in this section,

such as bar lengths and degree of bends, as well as

The manner in which structural members and

radius of hoops and spacing, is supplied in the plans

construction materials are connected to each other is

and schedules of the structure.

shown in detail drawings.

you

the shapes and locations of the steel

bonded to footings with vertical reinforcing bars

called dowels, which are placed in footings and

extend upward 3 to 4 feet into the wall (fig 2-21). A

wedge-shaped trough,