terrain, high air bursts can be expected to produce
typical designs. Nonstandard construction may be
severe structural damage at distances ranging from
classified generally as follows:
1300 meters for a 2 kt bomb to 8000 meters for a
(1) Substitute construction which
bomb yielding 500 kt. Underground shock will cause
involves the modification of standard plans or use of
water, sewer, and gas mains to suffer severely, but
electric mains will not be greatly affected.
(2) Expedient construction which uses
b. Although nuclear weapons possess
materials of any type. It may not be economical of
unprecedented destructive capabilities, it is not to be
labor or materials, but its employment is warranted to
assumed that defensive measures cannot lessen their
get the job done.
effectiveness. Some general precautions are listed
(3) Improvised construction which is
the simplest type suitable for immediate needs.
(1) Take advantage of natural terrain.
A hill mask can reduce structural damage
b. In addition to new construction
considerably at distances comparatively close to
involving standard or nonstandard structures, a good
portion of the engineer effort in some theaters is
directed to repairing and adapting existing structures
(2) Use glass-substitute material.
for military usage.
REFERENCES AND TABLES
Although this subcourse aims primarily at
(4) In some instances it may be
covering the fundamentals of standard-type TO
advisable to dig in or to partially bury certain
construction, you were given in paragraph 5-1 for this
lesson a list of reference works which provide
(5) Provide for an adequate water
information on nonstandard construction and related
subjects. It is not possible here to cover in detail the
use of these manuals, but it is believed that some of
(6) If materials are available, use non-
the exercises for this lesson will illustrate how
inflammable exterior finish, and additional bracing at
reference materials can be used in solving typical
problems which may arise in modifying standard
structures, in designing nonstandard buildings, or in
repairing existing structures. Tables 5-1, 5-2, 5-3, 5-
a. Although standard plans are normally
4, and 5-5, and examples of their use (in the self-test)
used in meeting requirement for new construction in
are extracted from FM 5-35, Engineers' Reference
a TO, climate conditions lack of standard materials,
and Logistical Data.
transportation shortages, availability of local
materials and labor, or other considerations may
make it necessary or advisable to modify these