Figure 1-23. Toothed rings and installation.
Figure 1-24. Excavating for structure with earth floor.
floor level above the outside and to prevent water
a. Wall foundations are built solid, the
seepage. Then wood floors are laid on the ground,
walls of the building being of continuous heavy
the excavated earth should be used to raise the floor
construction for their total length. Solid walls are
level. The pick and shovel should be used to dig
used where there are heavy loads to be carried or
small foundations; large foundations may be dug
where the earth has low supporting strength. These
either by hand or with machinery.
walls are made of concrete, rock, brick, or cut stone,
with a footing at the bottom (fig. 1-25). Because of
the time, labor, and material required to build it, this
type of wall will be used in the theater of operations
Foundations vary according to their use and the
only when other types cannot be used. Steel-rod
type of material available. The material may be cut
reinforcements should be used in all concrete walls
stone, rock, brick, concrete, tile, or wood, depending
upon the weight which the foundation is to support.
Foundations may be classified as wall or column
b. Column or pier foundations save time
and labor. They may be constructed from masonry or
wood. The piers or columns are