timber faces. (fig. 1-22). The grooves are made with
a special bit used in an electric, air, or hand drill. The
tongue-and-groove split in the ring permits
simultaneous ring bearing against the cone wall and
outer wall of the groove into which the ring is placed.
The inside bevel and mill edge facilitates installation
into and removal from the groove.
(2) Toothed rings. Toothed rings are
corrugated and toothed on both edges and are made
from 16-gage-plate low-carbon steel (fig. 1-23).
They are used between two timber framing members
in comparatively light construction and are embedded
into the contact faces of the joint members by means
In the theater of operations, there is little
excavation for building, but any excavating that is
done requires a set procedure. In excavating for a
building with earth floors, all that is necessary is a
Figure 1-21. Corrugated fasteners and their uses.
small trench to contain the sill (fig. 1-24). The
building may then be constructed and the grading on
nails in small timber. 3, figure 1-21 shows the proper
the inside done later, if necessary. In small buildings
method of inserting the fasteners.
where there are no wood floors, the earth should be
thrown on the inside to raise the
1-25. TIMBER CONNECTORS
a. General. Timber connectors are metal
devices used for increasing the joint strength in
timber structures. Efficient connections for either
timber-to-timber joints or timber-to-steel joints are
provided by the several types of timber connectors.
The appropriate type for a specific structure is
determined primarily by the kind of joint to be made
and the load to be carried. These connectors
eliminate much complicated framing of joints. Some
of the important advantages are that they simplify the
design of heavy construction provide greater
efficiency of material, reduce the amount of timber
and hardware used, and save time and labor. Many
types are used; however, the most common are split
rings and toothed rings.
b. Types and uses.
(1) Split rings. Split rings are made of
low-carbon steel in sizes of 2 1/2- and 4-inch
diameters. They are used between two timber faces
Figure 1-22. Split ring and its installation.
for heavy construction. They fit into grooves which
are cut half the depth of the ring into each of the