Therefore, if the RMS value is 115 volts AC, then the peak value would be computed as

follows:

Epeak = Erms x 1.414

Epeak = 115 volts AC x 1.414

Epeak = 162.6 volts

4-11. The average value of a sine wave is 0 volts. Figure 4-4, view (B) shows how the

average voltage changes when the negative portion of the sine wave is clipped off. Since

the waveform swings positive but never negative (pass the "zero-volt" reference line), the

average voltage is positive. The average voltage (Eavg) is determined by the equation:

Eavg = Epeak x .318

Where:

So:

Eavg = 162.6 x .318

Eavg = 51.7 volts

4-12. The half-wave rectifier gets its name from the fact that it conducts during only half

the input cycle. Its output is a series of pulses with a frequency that is the same as the input

frequency. So, when operated from a 60-Hz line, the frequency of the pulses is 60 Hz. This

is called RIPPLE FREQUENCY.

4-13. A full-wave rectifier is a device that has two or more diodes arranged so that load

current flows in the same direction during each half cycle of the AC supply. Figure 4-5

shows a diagram of a simple full-wave rectifier. The transformer supplies the source

voltage for two diode rectifiers (D1 and D2). This power transformer has a center-tapped,