Learning objectives serve as a preview of the information you are expected to learn in this chapter.
The comprehensive check-on-learning questions, found at the end of the chapter, are based on the
objectives. Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to perform the following learning
State, in terms of energy bands, the differences between a conductor, an
insulator, and a semiconductor.
Explain the electron and the hole flow theory in semiconductors and how the
semiconductor is affected and how the semiconductor is affected by doping.
Define the term "diode" and give a brief description and operation.
Explain how to use the diode as a half-wave rectifier and as a switch.
Identify the diode by its symbolism, alphanumerical designation, and color
List the precautions to take when working with diodes and describe the
different ways to test them.
INTRODUCTION TO SOLID STATE DEVICES
Semiconductors have electrical properties somewhere between those of insulators
and conductors. The use of semiconductor materials in electronic components is not new.
Some devices are as old as the electron tube. Two of the most well known semiconductors
in use today are the JUNCTION DIODE and TRANSISTOR. These semiconductors fall
under a more general heading called solid state devices. A SOLID STATE DEVICE is
nothing more than an electronic device that operates when electrons move within a solid
piece of semiconductor material. Since the invention of the transistor, solid state devices
have been developed and improved at an incredible rate. Great strides have been made in
the manufacturing techniques. There is no foreseeable limit to the future of these devices.
Solid state devices made from semiconductor materials offer the following:
These devices have entered into almost every field of science and industry. In addition to
the junction diode and transistor, a whole new family of related devices has been
developed. Some of these devices include the ZENER DIODE, LIGHT-EMITTING
DIODE, and FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR. The development of the IC has dominated
solid state technology for the last decade. The IC probably has had a greater impact on the
electronics industry than either the electron tube or transistor. The IC is a small piece of
semiconductor material that can produce complete electronic circuit functions.
23 June 2005