soldier system, or a frequent probability of marginal (IIIA) losses.
Moderate (M). Expected degraded mission capabilities in terms of the required
mission standard. Degradation may include reduced mission capability (if hazards
occur during the mission) or an unlikely probability of catastrophic loss (IE). The
probability of a critical loss occurring is seldom (IID). Marginal losses occur with a
probability of no more often than likely (IIIB or IIIC). Negligible losses are a
Low (L). Expected losses have little or no impact on accomplishing the mission. The
probability of a critical loss is unlikely (IIE), while that of a marginal loss is seldom
(IIIB through IIIE).
Using the defined degrees of probability and severity, an individual can determine the
overall environmental-related risk level from the intersection of the two in the risk
assessment matrix shown in Table 1-4.
Table 1-4. Risk Assessment Matrix
Risk Assessment Matrix
Step 3. Develop controls and make risk decisions. Controls eliminate or reduce the probability or
severity of each hazard, thereby lowering the overall risk. Controls can include educational,
physical, or avoidance actions. Many environmental risk controls are simply extensions of good
management, operations security (OPSEC), and leadership practices. Once all feasible risk control
measures are in place, some risks will always remain. This residual risk requires the leaders'
attention. Platoon leaders inform their chain of command of the residual risk and its implications
on the operation. However, the commander alone decides whether or not to accept the level of
Step 4. Implement controls. Inform subordinates (down to the individual soldiers) of risk control
measures. State how each control will be implemented, and assign the responsibility. This
preparation requires the leaders to anticipate the environmental requirements and incorporate them
into long-, short-, and near-term planning. The key to success is identifying the "who, what,
where, when, and how" aspects of each control.
Step 5. Supervise and evaluate. The leaders continuously monitor the controls throughout the
operation to ensure their effectiveness and to modify the controls as required. They also make on-
the-spot corrections, evaluate individual and collective performance, hold those in charge
accountable, and require that all tasks be performed to the applicable environmental standards.
Leaders ensure that the AAR process includes an evaluation of the environmental-related hazards,
controls, soldier performance, and leader supervision.