the existing road network, since you can generally save time and effort by repairing or improving an existing road
rather than constructing a new one. When possible, select an alternate route also.
Locating Water and Aggregate
Locate the nearest or most convenient source of suitable mixing water. Note any alternate sources in case
subsequent tests show that your first choice is unsuitable. Whenever possible, use local sand and gravel sources.
Locate these sources and specify any necessary tests.
Estimate the time for site preparation carefully during your reconnaissance of the area. A good estimate assures
that the proper equipment is available at both the place and time of need.
Building Approach Road
Most new construction takes place on undeveloped land. Therefore, you must build approach roads to deliver
materials t the site. Even though these are temporary roads, construct them carefully to withstand heavy loads.
Because the routes may become permanent roads later, build enough lanes to permit free traffic flow to and from
the construction site.
This consists of removing all trees, downed timber, brush, and other vegetation and rubbish from the site; digging
up surface boulders and other material embedded in the ground; and disposing of all materials cleared. To clear
the site of large timber and boulders, you may need heavy equipment as well as hand equipment, explosives, and
burning by fire.
Important in areas having high groundwater tables and for carrying off rain water during actual construction. You
can use either a well-point system or mechanical pumps to withdraw surface and subsurface water from the
Locating the Building Site
Stake out the building site after clearing and draining the land. The batter board layout is satisfactory in the
preliminary construction phases with this method, place batter boards approximately 2 to 6 feet outside of each
corner of the site. Then drive nails into the boards and extend strings between them to outline the building area.
STOCKPILING CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
Locate and stockpile the quantities of sand, gravel, admixture, and cement required. Take measures (elevate and
cover) to keep cement dry. In operations requiring large quantities of concrete, both aggregate and cement
batching plants are essential. Build up and maintain stockpiles of aggregate both at the batching plant and at the
crushing and screening plant. The batching plant stockpiles prevent shortages caused by temporary production or