In this lesson you will learn to identify desirable concrete properties and components and the use of factors
involved in producing concrete and the methods employed.
TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
ACTION: Identify desirable concrete properties and components. Have the ability to use the factors involved in
producing a desirable concrete mix and the methods employed to overcome limitations involved in concrete
CONDITION: You are given the materials contained in this lesson.
STANDARD: Correctly answer all practice exercise questions at the end of each lesson.
REFERENCE: The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publication: FM 5-742, with
Concrete is one of the most versatile, economical, and universally used construction material. It is among the few
building materials produced directly on the job by the user. To know proper mix, it is important for the user to
identify desirable properties and components and to be able to use factors involved in producing concrete and the
methods employed in concrete production. This lesson will help supervisors gain knowledge of the production
and use of concrete materials.
PART A - DESIRABLE CONCRETE PROPERTIES
Concrete is a mixture of aggregate and often controlled amounts of entrained air held together by a hardened paste
made from cement and water. Although there are other kinds of cement, the word cement, in common usage,
refers to portland cement. A chemical reaction between the portland cement and water, not drying of the mixture,
causes concrete to harden to a stonelike condition. This reaction is called hydration. Hydration gives off heat,
known as the heat of hydration. Because hydration, not air drying, hardens concrete, freshly placed concrete
submerged underwater will harden. When correctly proportioned, concrete is at first a plastic mass that can be
cast or molded into nearly any size or shape. Upon hydration of the cement by the water, concrete becomes
stonelike in strength, durability, and hardness.