b. Incorrect installation or application.
of high humidity (moisture content) provide excellent
c. Failure of related, connected, or adjacent
conditions for the growth of decay-causing fungi.
Wooden members which are near, touching or set in
d. Faulty design.
damp ground are especially subjected to fungi growth.
e. Unusual or extreme climatic conditions,
To prevent or minimize this fungi growth is our job if we
expect maximum service from our wooden structures.
exceeding the design specifications for which the
7-15. Exposed wooden members should be panted or
material or structural part was de.
soaked with creosote Whenever possible, wooden
members should be constructed on some type of masonry
f. Use exceeding the limitations of original de sign.
foundation and above ground level. This holds true for
g. Use other than that for which the structure was
treated as well as untreated timber.
7-16. Rust and its prevention.
Iron and steel
7-22. If failures occur during the normal life
components will rust after prolonged periods of exposure
expectancy of the structure, they should be carefully
to rainfall, snow, or moisture-laden air.
investigated and the defects corrected before any
This is particularly true If the metals are not painted or
superficial repair is done. Unless the causes of these
otherwise treated against this type of reaction. Paint
failures are identifiable or corrective procedures are
metals which are not inherently resistant or otherwise
standard, the installations engineer should be consulted r
protected from rust.
adequate corrective measures.
7-17. Insects and their elimination. Where wooden
structures are concerned, termites present a major
8. Waterfront Structures
inspection and repair problem. If these insects establish
themselves in or beneath a structure, they construct
8-1. The fundamental principles and practices
earthlike shelter tubes which lead to the wood portion of
presented here are meant to assist you in the preservation
the structure. These tubes may enter the wood from
of waterfront structures in the most economical manner.
below or through cracks between brick or hollow tile.
These fundamentals are intended to insure that facilities
A well-established termite colony can cause major
are maintained in such a condition that they can be used
structural damage in a very short while. For this reason,
throughout their planned life. These structures would be
we must provide an adequate insect control program.
maintained by an Army carpenter, if that carpenter was
7-18. Some of the basic methods used to discourage
assigned to one of the waterfront installations maintained
termite infiltration are soil treatment, wood treatment,
by the Army.
termite shields, not allowing wood to come in contact
8-2 If a carpenter is expected to maintain waterfront
structures, he must know what these structures are, the
wood piles. Special detail in foundation construction will
terms used in working with them, what damages them,
also discourage termite activity. However, if termite
the preventive maintenance methods, and the inspection
colonies do accumulate, consult your entomologist.
and repair procedures used in conjunction with them.
7-19. Corrective Repairs. These maintenance problems
Let's discuss these methods and procedures.
can and do create serious situations; however, if they are
8-3. Generally speaking, waterfront structures include
adequately approached and treated, the seriousness will be
wharves, quays, pier bulkheads, retaining walls,
reduced. Proper inspection and maintenance methods
breakwaters, jetties, groins, and other supporting features.
will prolong the useful life of all structures.
However, wharves, quays, piers bulkheads, and retaining
7-20. To determine the best repair method depends
walls are the only structure that we will be working with;
upon the use of the structure, extent of damage, life
so we will center our discussions around them. This
expectancy, and its possible future use. These are very
section covers the construction features, special tools
important factors, but why repair are needed is also
needed, general maintenance problems, corrective repairs,
important. The extent of damage will depend upon why
preventive maintenance measures, and safety measures
or how the structure failed. To determine this we must
for waterfront structures.
know the causes for failure.
8-4. Wharves and quays are structures constructed
7-21. Premature failure of materials and various
parallel or approximately parallel to the shoreline which
components may be caused by one of the following
provide berthing or docking for seagoing vessels. These
structures are virtually
a. Defective materials or structural components.